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yeast.007

 
yeast

Survival of air drying (16 h, 30˚C) of wild type and mutant yeast strains at various stages of growth (left panel) and corresponding intracellular trehalose concentrations (right panel)

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spliceleader

Fig.1: Bdelloid spliced leader RNA, which donates the SL exon to mRNA precursors by trans-splicing

sciencerotifer

 
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sciencefig3

Bdelloid LEA protein molecular shield assay. Citrate synthase (CS), with or without LEA proteins or BSA, and the latter proteins alone where indicated, were subjected to two cycles of vacuum drying and rehydration. Light scattering by protein particulates was measured by apparent absorption at 340 nm in the spectrophotometer. Error bars show standard deviation (n = 3); ns, not significantly different (P > 0.05); significant values *P < 0.05 or **P < 0.001.

science

 
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podcasticon

 
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phospho

JNK and p38 MAPK activation in T-REx 293 cells by desiccation (Huang and Tunnacliffe, 2004).

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philodina

The bdelloid rotifer Philodina roseola

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pdficon

 
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p. superbus livedead

Fig. 2: Live/dead staining of P. superbus cell cultures.

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Learotifer

Bdelloid rotifer A. ricciae with DNA stained blue and LEA protein stained red.

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leafig2

Fig 2: LEA protein reduces protein aggregation in vivo. Confocal microscopy of human cells after introduction of HD polyQ ("EGFP-HDQ74") expression construct, with (induced) or without (uninduced) expression of LEA protein. Nematode LEA protein AavLEA1 is immunostained red, polyQ protein is green and nuclei are stained blue with DAPI. Indicative polyQ aggregates are shown by arrowheads; fewer aggregates are observed in the presence of LEA protein. See Chakrabortee et al. (2007) for more detail.

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leafig1

Fig 1: Aggregation and activity of citrate synthase after desiccation, in the presence of nematode LEA protein or BSA. Aggregation is measured by light scattering (apparent absorbance at A340); enzyme activity is assayed according to standard methods and results expressed as percentage of control activity. One drying cycle corresponds to vacuum drying (without freezing) for 1 h followed by immediate rehydration in water to the original volume. Results after two and four drying cycles are shown. See Goyal et al. (2005) for more detail.

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leacells

Human cell line expressing a nematode LEA protein from Aphelenchus avenae.

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hoek

Antony van Leeuwenhoek

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graph2

 
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graph1

 
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gfpnematode

C. elegans expressing GFP (green) with DNA stained blue.

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bdelloidnotrehalose

Carbohydrate analysis by gas chromatography. (a) Dried nematode A. avenae extract containing glucose and accumulated trehalose. (b) Dried rotifer P. roseola extract containing glucose, but no trehalose or other disaccharide. Glucose is represented by the doublet of peaks emerging at 7 min, while trehalose gives a single peak at 13 min. From Lapinski & Tunnacliffe (2003); Caprioli et al. (2004) and McGee (2006) have similar findings with other bdelloid species.

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aavenae cells differentiating

Fig. 3: A. avenae cells differentiating in culture

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a. avenae livedead

Fig. 1: Live/dead staining of A. avenae cell cultures.