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unstable veil thumb

The environment surrounding the plume is unstable, leading to the formation of finger-like convective instabilities with high concentration of particles.

unstable veil

 
porous catalyst2

 
stable veil

 
porous flow thumb

 
bubble desorption4

 
bubble desorption2

 
anim2 solidification

Sequence of photographs illustrating the onset and development of crystallisation in a heat pack: (a) the subcooled solution and metal trigger; (b) the metallic trigger is flexed; the solidification front at times (c) 3 s, (d) 5 s and (e) 6 s after triggering; and (f) the solution is completely solidified 7 s after triggering.

sem2 disc

 
sem1 disc thumb

 
sem2 disc thumb

 
mdisc

 
bubble desorption4 thumb

Geometrically spaced layers of precipitate in a system of K2CrO4 in solution above a gel containing AgNO3.

double diffusion

 
porous catalyst2 thumb

Reactant concentration profile inside a catalyst slab for a first-order chemical reaction. Shown are the numerical results of Quinta Ferreira (1988, grey lines), the regular perturbation predictions for low Thiele modulus (solid black lines), the singular perturbation predictions for high Thiele modulus (dashed black lines) and the singular perturbation predictions for intermediate values of the Thiele modulus (dotted black line).

bubble desorption2 thumb

Bubbles of nitrogen desorbed during the solidification of a chromium steel ingot (from Carey 1953).

porous catalyst

 
mdisc thumb

The metallic disc

stable veil thumb

The environment surrounding the plume is stable

bubble desorption3 thumb

Bubble layers in the Ogi picrite sill, Japan (from Toramaru et al. 1996).

bubble plumes

 
porous flow

Predicted flow fields near a brine-water interface in a porous medium.

porous density

Predicted density fields near a brine-water interface in a porous medium.

sem1 disc

Scanning electron microscope images of cracks and crystals on the surface of an active disc.

porous catalyst thumb

Catalyst slab showing the asymmetric profiles of concentration of reactant (blue) and of temperature (red) for an exothermic reaction.

bubble plumes thumb

 
bubble desorption1

 
porous density thumb

 
bubble desorption1 thumb

Bubble desorption during the solidification of a multicomponent liquid.

convection reactor

 
convection reactor thumb

 
bubble desorption3

 
double diffusion thumb

Finger interface: photograph (left) and schematic (right