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Department of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology




  1. M.P. Ferro, L. Leclerc, M. Sleiman, B. Marchiori, J. Pourchez, R.M. Owens, M. Ramuz. “Effect of E Cigarette Emissions on Tracheal Cells Monitored at the Air–Liquid Interface Using an Organic Electrochemical Transistor”. Adv. Biosys.2019, 3, 1800249
  2. C. Pitsalidis, M. Ferro, D. Iandolo, L. Tzounis, S. Inal, R. M Owens., Transistor in a tube: route towards 3D Bioelectronics. Science Advances  4, 10, eaat4253, 2018 doi: 10.1126/sciadv.aat4253
  3. D. Iandolo, F. A. Pennacchio, V. Mollo, D. Rossi, D. Dannhauser, B. Cui, R. M. Owens, and F. Santoro.” Electron Microscopy for 3D Scaffolds–Cell Biointerface Characterization”. Adv. Biosys. 2018, 1800103 doi: 10.1002/adbi.201800103
  4. C. Pitsalidis, A-M Pappa, M Porel, CM Artim, GC Faria, DD Duong C. A Alabi, S. Daniel, A. Salleo, R.M Owens "Biomimetic Electronic Devices for Measuring Bacterial Membrane Disruption" Advanced Materials, 1803130
  5. I. Del Agua, S. Marina, C. Pitsalidis, D. Mantione, M. Ferro, D. Iandolo, A. Sanchez-Sanchez, G.G Malliaras, R.M Owens, D. Mecerreyes."Conducting Polymer Scaffolds Based on Poly (3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene) and Xanthan Gum for Live-Cell Monitoring". ACS omega 3 (7), 7424-7431 doi: 10.1021/acsomega.8b00458
  6. A-M. Pappa*, D. Ohayon,*A. Giovannitti,*, I. P. Maria, A. Savva, I. Uguz, J. Rivnay, I. McCulloch, R. M. Owens,‡ and S. Inal,‡. “Direct metabolite detection with an n-type accumulation mode organic electrochemical transistor”. Science Advances  4, 6, eaat0911, doi: 10.1126/sciadv.aat0911
  7. V. F Curto, M. Ferro, F. Mariani, R. M. Owens “Microfluidic trapping device for electronic monitoring of 3D spheroids”, Lab on a Chip, (2018), doi: 10.1039/C8LC00067K
  8. J. Rivnay, S. Inal, A. Salleo, R.M. Owens, M. Berggren, and G.G. Malliaras. “ Organic Electrochemical Transistors”. Nature Reviews Materials 3, 17086 (2018) doi:10.1038/natrevmats.2017.86
  9. A-M Pappa, O Parlak, G Scheiblin, P Mailley, A Salleo, R M. Owens. “Organic Electronics for Point-of-Care Metabolite Monitoring”. Trends in Biotechnology 36 (1), 45-59 (2018)  DOI: 10.1016/j.tibtech.2017.10.022
  10. J.Pas, C. Pitsalidis, D.A Koutsouras, P. Quilichini, F. Santoro, B. Cui, L. Gallais, R.P O'Connor, G.G Malliaras and R.M. Owens. “Enhancing electrophysiology recordings with neurospheres via patterned PEDOT:PSS microelectrode arrays”. Advanced Biosystems (2017) doi: 10.1002/adbi.201700164
  11. V. Curto, A. Hama, B. Marchiori, A-M. Pappa, M. Braendlein, and R. M. Owens. “Organic transistor platform with integrated microfluidics for in-line multi-parametric in vitro cell monitoring”. Nature Microsystems & Nanoengineering 3: 17028 (2017) doi:10.1038/micronano.2017.28
  12. C. Terciolo, A. Dobric, M. Ouaissi, C. Siret, G. Breuzard, F. Silvy, B. Marchiori, S. Germain, R. Bonier, A. Hama, R.M. Owens, D. Lombardo, V. Rigot, F. André “Saccharomyces boulardii CNCM I-745 restores intestinal barrier integrity by regulation of E-cadherin recycling”. Journal of Crohn’s and colitis 1;11(8); 999-1010 (2017) doi: 10.1093/ecco-jcc/jjx030
  13.  S. Inal, A. Hama, M. Ferro, C. Pitsalidis, J. Oziat, D. Iandolo, A-M Pappa, M. Hadida, M. Huerta, D. Marchat, P. Mailley, R. M. Owens. Conducting Polymer Scaffolds for Monitoring 3D Cell Culture”. Advanced Biosystems 1 (6); 1700052 (2017) doi: 10.1002/adbi.201700052
  14. D. Ohayon, C. Pitsalidis, A.M. Pappa, A. Hama, Y. Zhang, L. Gallais, R.M. Owens. "Laser Patterning of Conducting Polymers for Controlled Cell Adhesion". Advance Materials Interfaces 4(16); 1700191 (2017) doi 10.1002/admi.201700191
  15. I. Uguz, C. M. Proctor, V. F. Curto, A-M. Pappa, M.J. Donahue, M.Ferro, R. M. Owens, D. Khodagholy, S. Inal and G. G. Malliaras. “A Microfluidic Ion Pump for In Vivo Drug Delivery”. Advanced Materials 29(27) 1701217 (2017) doi: 10.1002/adma.201701217
  16. D. A. Koutsouras, A. Hama, J. Pas, P. Gkoupidenis, B. Hivert, C. Faivre-Sarrailh, E. Di Pasquale, R. M. Owens  and G. G. Malliaras. “PEDOT:PSS microelectrode arrays for hippocampal cell culture electrophysiological recordings” . MRS Communcations 7:2, 259-265 (2017) doi: 10.1557/mrc.2017.34
  17. M. Braendlein, A-M. Pappa, C. Acquaviva, E. Mamessier, G. G. Malliaras, R.M. Owens. Lactate Detection in Tumor Cell Cultures Using Organic Transistor Circuits. Advanced Materials 29, 1605744 (2017) doi: 10.1002/adma.201605744
  18. A.M. Pappa, S. Inal, K. Roy, Y. Zhang and R. M. Owens. Polyelectrolyte Assemblies on top of Organic Electrochemical Transistors. ACS Materials and Interfaces 9 (12); 10427–10434 (2017) doi 10.1021/acsami.6b15522
  19. G. Scheiblin, R. Coppard, R.M Owens, P. Mailley, G.G Malliaras, “Referenceless pH Sensor using Organic Electrochemical Transistors”. Advanced Materials Technologies 2 (2);1600141 (2017) doi: 10.1002/admt.201600141
  20. X. Strakosas, M. Huerta, M.J. Donahue, A. Hama, A.M. Pappa, M. Ferro, M. Ramuz, J. Rivnay and R. M. Owens. Catalytically enhanced organic transistors for in vitro toxicology monitoring through hydrogel entrapment of enzymes. Applied Polymer Science J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 134, 44483 (2017). doi: 10.1002/app.44483
  21. Y. Zhang, S. Inal, C-Y. Hsia, M. Ferro, M. Ferro, S. Daniel and R. M. Owens. Supported lipid bilayer assembly on PEDOT:PSS films and transistors. Advanced Functional Materials DOI: 10.1002/ adfm.201602123, (2016). doi: 10.1002/adfm.201602123
  22. A-M. Pappa, V. F. Curto, M. Braendlein, X. Strakosas, M. J. Donahue, M. Fiocchi, G.G. Malliaras, R.M. Owens. Organic Transistor Arrays Integrated with Finger-Powered Microfluidics for Multianalyte Saliva Testing. Advanced Healthcare Materials, 5 (17); 2295–2302 (2016) doi: 10.1002/adhm.201600494
  23. X. Strakosas, B. Wei, D.C. Martin, R. M. Owens. Biofunctionalization of polydioxythiophene derivatives for biomedical applications. Journal of Materials Chemistry B, 4; 4952 – 4968 (2016) doi: 10.1039/C6TB00852F
  24. M. Huerta, J. Rivnay, M. Ramuz, A. Hama, and R.M. Owens. “Early detection of nephrotoxicity in vitro using a transparent conducting polymer device”. Applied Toxicology In Vitro, 2(1); 17-25 (2016) doi:10.1089/aivt.2015.0028
  25. E. Moyen, A. Hama, E. Ismailova, L. Assaud, G. Malliaras, M. Hanbücken, and R. M. Owens “Nanostructured conducting polymers for stiffness controlled cell adhesion”. Nanotechnology, 27; 074001 (2016) doi: 10.1088/0957-4484/27/7/074001
  26. I. Uguz, M. Ganji, A. Hama, A. Tanaka, S. Inal, A. Youssef, R.M. Owens, P. P Quilichini, A. Ghestem, C. Bernard, S. A Dayeh, G.G Malliaras. “Autoclave Sterilization of PEDOT: PSS Electrophysiology Devices”. Advanced healthcare materials 5 (24);3094-3098 (2016). doi: 10.1002/adhm.201600870
  27. M.E. Brennan-Fournet, M. Huerta, Y. Zhang, G. Malliaras, and R.M. Owens. “Detection of fibronectin conformational changes in the extracellular matrix of live cells using plasmonic nanoplates”. Journal of Materials Chemistry B 3 (47); 9140-9147 (2015) doi: 10.1039/C5TB02060C
  28. G. Scheiblin, A. Aliane, X. Strakosas, V.F. Curto, R. Coppard, G. Marchand, R. M. Owens, P. Mailley, and G.G Malliaras. “Screen-printed organic electrochemical transistors for metabolite sensing”. MRS Communications, 5 (3); 507-511 (2015). doi:10.1117/12.2186385
  29. J. Rivnay, M. Ramuz, P. leleux, A. Hama, M. Huerta and R.M. Owens. "Using white noise to gate organic transistors for dynamic monitoring of cultured cell layers". Scientific Reports  5; 11613 (2015). doi:10.1038/srep11613
  30. M. Huerta, J. Rivnay, M. Ramuz, A. Hama, and R.M. Owens. “Electrical monitoring of cysts using organic electrochemical transistors”. APL Materials 3 (3); 030701 (2015) doi:10.1063/1.4915493
  31. J. Rivnay, P. Leleux, M. Ferro, M. Sessolo, A. Williamson, D.A. Koutsouras , D. Khodagholy, M. Ramuz, X. Strakosas, R.M. Owens, C. Benar, J-M. Badier, C. Bernard, G.G. Malliaras. “High-performance transistors for bioelectronics through tuning of channel thickness”. Science Advances 1 (4); e1400251 (2015). doi: 10.1126/sciadv.1400251
  32. M. Ramuz, K. Margita, J. Rivnay, P. Leleux, A. Hama and R.M. Owens. “Optimization of a planar all-polymer transistor for characterization of barrier tissue". ChemPhysChem 16 (6); 1210-1216 (2015) doi: 10.1002/cphc.201402878
  33. J. Rivnay, M. Ramuz, P. leleux, A. Hama, M. Huerta and R.M. Owens. "Organic electrochemical transistors for cell-based impedance sensing". Applied Physics Letters, 106 (4); 043301 (2015) doi: 10.1063/1.4906872
  34. M. Ramuz, A. Hama, J. Rivnay, P. Leleux, and R.M. Owens. “Monitoring of cell layer coverage and differentiation with the organic electrochemical transistor” Journal of Materials Chemistry B 3 (29); 5971-5977 (2015). doi: 10.1039/C5TB00922G
  35. G.C. Faria, D.T. Duong, A. Salleo, C. A Polyzoidis, S. Logothetidis, J. Rivnay, R.M. Owens, and G. G Malliaras. “Organic electrochemical transistors as impedance biosensors”. MRS Communications 4 (4); 189-194 (2015) doi:10.1557/mrc.2014.35
  36. L. Sandeau, C. Vuillaume, S. Contié, E. Grinenval, F. Belloni, H. Rigneault, R.M. Owens and M. Brennan Fournet. “Large area CMOS bio-pixel array for compact high sensitive multiplex biosensing”. Lab on a Chip, 15; 877-881 (2015) doi: 10.1039/C4LC01025F
  37. X. Strakosas, M. Bongo, and R.M. Owens. “The organic electrochemical transistor for biological applications”. Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 132 (15) (2015) doi: 10.1002/app.41735
  38. M. Ramuz, A. Hama, M. Huerta, J. Rivnay, P. Leleux, and R.M. Owens. “Combined optical/electronic monitoring of epithelial cells in vitro. Advanced Materials  26 (41); 7083-90 (2014) doi: 10.1002/adma.201401706
  39. S. Tria, M. Ramuz, M. Huerta, P. Leleux, J. Rivnay, L. Jimison, A. Hama, G. G. Malliaras, and R.M. Owens. “Dynamic detection of Salmonella typhimurium infection of polarized epithelia using organic transistors”. Advanced Healthcare Materials, 3 (7); 1053-60 (2014) doi: 10.1002/adhm.201300632
  40. S.A. Tria, M. Ramuz, L.H. Jimison, A. Hama, and R. M. Owens. “Sensing of Barrier Tissue Disruption, with an Organic Electrochemical Transistor”. Journal of Visualised Experiments, e51102 (2014) doi:  10.3791/51102
  41. V.F. Curto, S. Scheuermann, R. M. Owens, V. Ranganathan, D. R. MacFarlane, F. Benito-Lopez and D. Diamond. “Probing the specific ion effects of biocompatible hydrated choline ionic liquids on lactate oxidase biofunctionality in sensor applications”. Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 16 (5); 1841-1849 (2014) doi: 10.1039/C3CP52845F
  42. P. Leleux, C. Johnson, X. Strakosas, J. Rivnay, T. Hervé, R.M. Owens and G.G. Malliaras. “Ionic liquid gel-assisted electrodes for long-term cutaneous recordings”. Advanced Materials, 3 (9); 1377–1380 (2014) doi: 10.1002/adhm.201300614
  43. X. Strakosas, M. Sessolo, A. Hama, J. Rivnay, E. Stavrinidou, G.G. Malliaras, and R.M. Owens. “A facile biofunctionalisation route for solution processable conducting polymer devices”.  Journal of Materials Chemistry B, 2 (17); 2537-2545 (2014) doi: 10.1039/C3TB21491E
  44. J. Rivnay, R.M. Owens, and G.G. Malliaras. “The Rise of Organic Bioelectronics”. Chemistry of Materials, 26 (1); 679-685 (2014) doi: 10.1021/cm4022003
  45. D. Khodagholy, J. Rivnay, M. Sessolo, M. Gurfinkel, P. Leleux, L.H. Jimison, E. Stavrinidou, T. Herve, S. Sanaur, R.M. Owens, and G.G. Malliaras, "High Transconductance Organic Electrochemical Transistors", Nature Communications, 4; 2133 (2013) doi:  10.1038/ncomms3133
  46. M. Bongo, O. Winther-Jensen, S. Himmelberger, X. Strakosas, M. Ramuz, A. Hama, E. Stavrinidou, G.G Malliaras, A. Salleo, B. Winther-Jensen, R.M. Owens. “PEDOT: Gelatin composites mediate brain endothelial cell adhesion”. Journal of Materials Chemistry B, 1(31); 3860-3867 (2013) doi: 10.1039/C3TB20374C
  47. S.A. Tria, L.H. Jimison, A. Hama, M. Bongo, and R.M. Owens. “Validation of the organic electrochemical transistor for in vitro toxicology”. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. 1830 (9); 4381-4390 (2013) doi: 10.1016/j.bbagen.2012.12.003
  48. S.A. Tria, L.H. Jimison, A. Hama, M. Bongo, and R.M. Owens. “Sensing of EGTA Mediated Barrier Tissue Disruption with an Organic Transistor”. Biosensors  3 (1); 44-57 (2013). doi: 10.3390/bios3010044
  49. L.H. Jimison, S. A. Tria, D. Khodagholy, M. Gurfinkel, E. Lanzarini, A. Hama, G. G. Malliaras, and R. M. Owens. “Measurement of Barrier Tissue Integrity with an Organic Electrochemical Transistor”. Advanced Materials, 24 (44); 5919-5923 (2012) doi: 10.1002/adma.201202612
  50. S. Kang, Chae Un Kim, X. Gu, R.M. Owens, S.J. van Rijn, V. Boonyaleepun, Y. Mao, T.A. Springer, and M.M. Jin. “Complex Structure of Engineered Modular Domains: Defining Molecular Interaction between ICAM-1 and Integrin LFA-1”. PLOS ONE , 7 (8) ; e44124 (2012)    doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0044124
  51. L.H. Jimison, A. Hama, X. Strakosas, V. Armel, D. Khodagholy, E. Ismailova, G.G. Malliaras, B. Winther-Jensen, and R.M. Owens.PEDOT:TOS with PEG : A biofunctional surface with improved electronic characteristics”. Journal of Materials Chemistry B, 22 (37); 19498–19505 (2012) doi: 10.1039/C2JM32188B
  52. D. Khodagholy, V.F. Curto, K. J. Fraser, M. Gurfinkel, R. Byrne, D. Diamond, G. G. Malliaras, F. Benito-Lopez, R. M. Owens. “Organic electrochemical transistor incorporating an ionogel as solid state electolyte for lactate sensing”. Journal of Materials Chemistry B, 22 (10); 4440-4443 (2012) doi: 10.1039/C2JM15716K
  53. S.Y. Yang, F. Cicoira, R. Byrne, F. Benito-Lopez, D. Diamond, R.M. Owens, and G.G. Malliaras. “Electrochemical transistors with ionic liquids for enzymatic sensing”. Chemical Communications, 46; 7972 (2010) doi: 10.1039/C0CC02064H
  54. R.M. Owens and G.G.Malliaras. “Organic Electronics at the Interface with Biology”. MRS Bulletin, 35 (6) 449-456 (2010) doi:10.1557/mrs2010.583
  55. R.M. Owens, X. Gu, M. Shin, T.A. Springer, and M.M. Jin. “Engineering of single Ig superfamily domain of ICAM-1 for native fold and function”. Journal of  Biological Chemistry, 285 (21) 15906-15 (2010) doi: 10.1074/jbc.M110.104349
  56. N.Y. Shim,D.A. Bernards, D.J. Macaya, J.A. DeFranco, M. Nikolou, R.M. Owens, and G.G. Malliaras. “All-plastic electrochemical transistor for glucose sensing using a ferrocene mediator”. Sensors, 9 (12); 9896-9902 (2009) doi:10.3390/s91209896
  57. A.R. Parks, Z. Li, Q. Shi, R.M. Owens, M.M. Jin, and J.E. Peters. “Transposition into replicating DNA occurs through interaction with the processivity factor”. Cell, 138 (4); 685-95 (2009) doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2009.06.011
  58. R.M. Owens, C. Wang, J.A. You, J. Jiambutr, A.S.L.  Xu, R.B. Marala, and M.M. Jin. “Real-time quantitation of viral replication and inhibitor potency using a label-free optical biosensor”. Journal of Receptors and Signal Transduction Research, 29(3-4); 195-201 (2009) doi:10.1080/10799890903079919
  59. S.Y. Yang, J.A. DeFranco, Y.A. Sylvester, T.J. Gobert, D.J. Macaya,R.M. Owens, and G.G.  Malliaras. “Integration of a surface-directed microfluidic system with an organic electrochemical transistor array”. Lab on a Chip, 9 (5); 704-8 (2009) doi: 10.1039/B811606G
  60. D.J. Macaya, M. Nikolou, S. Takamatsu, J.T. Mabeck, R.M. Owens, and G.G. Malliaras. “Simple Glucose sensors with micromolar sensitivity based on organic electrochemical transistors”. Sensors and Actuators B, 123 (1); 374-378 (2007) doi: 10.1016/j.snb.2006.08.038
  61. F.F. Hsu, J. Turk, R.M. Owens, E.R. Rhoades, and D.G. Russell. “Structural Characterization of Phosphatidyl-myo-inositol Mannosides from Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette Guerin by Multiple-Stage Quadrupole Ion-Trap Mass Spectrometry with Electrospray Ionization. I. PIMs and Lyso-PIMs”. Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry, 18(3); 466-78 (2006) doi:10.1016/j.jasms.2006.10.012
  62. F.F. Hsu, J. Turk, R.M. Owens, E.R. Rhoades, and D.G. Russell. “Structural Characterization of Phosphatidylinositol Mannosides from Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette Guerin by Multiple-Stage Quadrupole Ion-Trap Mass Spectrometry with Electrospray Ionization. II. triacyl-and tetraacyl-PIMs”. Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry. 18(3); 479-92 (2006) doi:10.1016/j.jasms.2006.10.020
  63. R.M. Owens, F.F. Hsu, E. Hesteande, P. Giannakas, J.C. Sacchettini, J.D. McKinney, P.J. Hill, J.T. Belisle, B.A. Butcher,K. Pethe, and D.G. Russell. “M. tuberculosis Rv2252 encodes a lipid kinase involved in the biosynthesis of phosphatidylinositol mannosides (PIMs)”. Molecular Microbiology, 60 (5); 1152-63 (2006) doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2958.2006.05174.x
  64. G.E. Purdy, R.M. Owens, L. Bennett, D.G. Russell, and B.A. Butcher. “Kinetics of phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate acquisition differ between IgG bead-containing phagosomes and Mycobacteria tuberculosis containing phagosomes”. Cellular Microbiology 7 (11); 1627-34 (2005). doi: 10.1111/j.1462-5822.2005.00580.x
  65. R.M. Owens, G. Pritchard, P. Skipp, M. Hodey, S.R. Connell, K.H. Nierhaus, and C.D. O’Connor. “A dedicated translation factor controls the synthesis of the global regulator Fis”. The EMBO Journal 23; 3375–3385 (2004) doi: 10.1038/sj.emboj.7600343
  66. R.M. Owens, A. Grant, N. Davies and C.D. O’Connor. “Purification of the Lac Repressor With Polyhistidine-tagged Proteins in Immobilized Metal Affinity Chromatography”. Protein Expression and Purification, 21; 352-360 (2001). doi:10.1006/prep.2000.1384


Book Chapters

  1. C. Pitsalidis, A-M. Pappa, D. Iandolo, C-M. Moysidou and R. M. Owens, Conducting and Conjugated Polymers for Biosensing Applications, Chapter 39, Vol 2, Handbook of Conducting Polymers, Fourth Edition, CRC Press, (in press)
  2. M. Sessolo, M. Ramuz, G.G. Malliaras and R.M. Owens. “Electronic methods for in vitro monitoring of cell-arrays”. Edited by Kris Iniewski and Sandro Carrara (2015).
  3. L.H. Jimison, J. Rivnay, and R.M. Owens. “Conducting polymers to control and monitor cells” In: “Organic Electronics: Emerging Concepts and Technologies”. pp 27-67. Edited by Fabio Cicoira and Clara Santato (2013).
  4. D. Khodagholy, G.G. Malliaras, and R.M. Owens. “Polymer-Based Sensors” In: Matyjaszewski K and Möller M (eds.) Polymer Science: A Comprehensive Reference, vol. 8, pp. 101-128. Amsterdam: Elsevier BV. (2012)
  5. Editor for special issue on biomaterials for 3D cell biology. MRS Communications 7 (3), (2017)
  6. Guest editor for Biochimica Biophysica Acta General Subjects. Special issue on biological applications for conducting polymer devices Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, 1830; (2013)
  7.  “Organic Semiconductors in Sensor Applications”. Eds. D.A. Bernards, R.M. Owens, and G.G. Malliaras, Springer (2008). (also translated into Chinese)



  1. Editor for special issue on biomaterials for 3D cell biology. MRS Communications 7 (3), (2017)
  2. Guest editor for Biochimica Biophysica Acta General Subjects. Special issue on biological applications for conducting polymer devices Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, 1830; (2013)
  3.  “Organic Semiconductors in Sensor Applications”. Eds. D.A. Bernards, R.M. Owens, and G.G. Malliaras, Springer (2008). (also translated into Chinese)


  1. R.M. Owens, D Iandolo, K Wittmann “A (bio) materials approach to three-dimensional cell biology”.MRS Communications 7 (3), 287-288 (2017). doi:10.1557/mrc.2017.102
  2. R.M. Owens, P. Kjall, A. Richter-Dahlfors and F. Cicoira. “Organic electronics- novel applications in biomedicine”. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, 1830; 4283–4285 (2013) doi:10.1016/j.bbagen.2013.04.025
  3. R.M. Owens. “Organic electronics at the interface with biology: a biologist’s perspective”. La Chimica & L’industria. 5 (2013).
  4. D.G. Russell, G.E. Purdy, R.M. Owens, K.H. Rohde, and R.M. Yates. “Mycobacterium tuberculosis and the concept of the “4 minute phagosome”. ASM news 71 (10); 559-563 (2005).

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