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Department of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology



1.   Wu, M.Y., W.W. Li, G. Christie, P. Setlow, and Y.Q. Li, Characterization of Heterogeneity and Dynamics of Lysis of Single Bacillus subtilis Cells upon Prophage Induction During Spore Germination, Outgrowth, and Vegetative Growth Using Raman Tweezers and Live-Cell Phase-Contrast Microscopy. Anal Chem, 2021. 93(3): p. 1443-1450

2.   Setlow, P. and G. Christie, Bacterial Spore mRNA - What's Up With That? Front Microbiol, 2020. 11: p. 596092

3.   Mela, I., P.P. Vallejo-Ramirez, S. Makarchuk, G. Christie, D. Bailey, R.M. Henderson, H. Sugiyama, M. Endo, and C.F. Kaminski, DNA Nanostructures for Targeted Antimicrobial Delivery. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl, 2020. 59(31): p. 12698-12702 DOI:

4.   Christie, G. and P. Setlow, Bacillus spore germination: Knowns, unknowns and what we need to learn. Cellular Signalling, 2020. 74: p. 109729

5.   Wang, S., K.X. Zhou, G. Christie, and D.I. Wilson, Development of zero discharge net flow fluid dynamic gauging for studying biofilm and spore removal.
Food Bioprod Process, 2019. 113: p. 60-67 DOI:

6.   Riyami, B.A., A. Ghosh, E.J. Rees, and G. Christie, Novel cortex lytic enzymes in Bacillus megaterium QM B1551 spores. FEMS Microbiology Letters, 2019. 366(12)

7.   Aspholm, M.E., K.K. Kollerud, H.C. Hogberg Hansen, P.E. Granum, G. Christie, and T. Lindback, Biochemical and mutational analysis of spore cortex-lytic enzymes in the food spoiler Bacillus licheniformis. Food Microbiol, 2019. 84: p. 103259

8.   Xu Zhou, K., A. Ionescu, E. Wan, Y.N. Ho, C.H.W. Barnes, G. Christie, and D.I. Wilson, Paramagnetism in Bacillus spores: Opportunities for novel biotechnological applications. Biotechnology and Bioengineering, 2018. 115(4): p. 955-964

9.   Mohamed, M.Y.H. and G. Christie, A system for the expression and release of heterologous proteins from the core of Bacillus subtilis spores.FEMS Microbiology Letters, 2018. 365(23)

10. Manton, J.D., Y. Xiao, R.D. Turner, G. Christie, and E.J. Rees, ELM: super-resolution analysis of wide-field images of fluorescent shell structures.Methods Appl Fluoresc, 2018. 6(3): p. 037001

11. Manetsberger, J., A. Ghosh, E.A.H. Hall, and G. Christie, Orthologues of Bacillus subtilis spore crust proteins have a structural role in the Bacillus megaterium QM B1551 spore exosporium. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 2018. 84(20)

12. Ke, P., I.L. Batalha, A. Dobson, E. Tejeda-Montes, S. Ekizoglou, G. Christie, J. McCabe, and C.F. van der Walle, Novel salts of dipicolinic acid as viscosity modifiers for high concentration antibody solutions. International Journal of Pharmaceutics, 2018. 548(1): p. 682-688

13. Ghosh, A., J.D. Manton, A.R. Mustafa, M. Gupta, A. Ayuso-Garcia, E.J. Rees, and G. Christie, Proteins encoded by the gerP operon are localized to the inner coat in Bacillus cereus spores and are dependent on GerPA and SafA for assembly. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 2018. 84(14)

14. Zhou, K.X., F. Wisnivesky, D.I. Wilson, and G. Christie, Effects of culture conditions on the size, morphology and wet density of spores of Bacillus cereus 569 and Bacillus megaterium QM B1551. Letters in Applied Microbiology, 2017. 65(1): p. 50-56

15. Xu Zhou, K., N. Li, G. Christie, and D.I. Wilson, Assessing the impact of germination and sporulation conditions on the adhesion of Bacillus spores to glass and stainless steel by fluid dynamic gauging. Journal of Food Science, 2017. 82(11): p. 2614-2625

16. Esson, D., S. Gupta, D. Bailey, P. Wigley, A. Wedley, A.E. Mather, G. Meric, P. Mastroeni, S.K. Sheppard, N.R. Thomson, J. Parkhill, D.J. Maskell, G. Christie, and A.J. Grant, Identification and initial characterisation of a protein involved in Campylobacter jejuni cell shape. Microb Pathog, 2017. 104: p. 202-211

17. Batalha, I.L., P. Ke, E. Tejeda-Montes, S. Uddin, C.F. van der Walle, and G. Christie, Dipicolinic acid as a novel spore-inspired excipient for antibody formulation. International Journal of Pharmaceutics, 2017. 526(1-2): p. 332-338

18. Lanzilli, M., G. Donadio, R. Addevico, A. Saggese, G. Cangiano, L. Baccigalupi, G. Christie, E. Ricca, and R. Isticato, The Exosporium of Bacillus megaterium QM B1551 Is Permeable to the Red Fluorescence Protein of the Coral Discosoma sp. Frontiers in Microbiology, 2016. 7: p. 1-8

19. Esson, D., A.E. Mather, E. Scanlan, S. Gupta, S.P. de Vries, D. Bailey, S.R. Harris, T.J. McKinley, G. Meric, S.K. Berry, P. Mastroeni, S.K. Sheppard, G. Christie, N.R. Thomson, J. Parkhill, D.J. Maskell, and A.J. Grant, Genomic variations leading to alterations in cell morphology of Campylobacter spp. Scientific Reports, 2016. 6: p. 1 - 13

20. Eijlander, R.T., S. Holsappel, A. de Jong, A. Ghosh, G. Christie, and O.P. Kuipers, SpoVT: From Fine-Tuning Regulator in Bacillus subtilis to Essential Sporulation Protein in Bacillus cereus. Frontiers in Microbiology, 2016. 7: p. 1-11

21. Al-Riyami, B., F.I. Ustok, K. Stott, D.Y. Chirgadze, and G. Christie, The crystal structure of Clostridium perfringens SleM, a muramidase involved in cortical hydrolysis during spore germination. Proteins, 2016. 84(11): p. 1681-1689

22. Ustok, F.I., D.Y. Chirgadze, and G. Christie, Crystal structure of the PepSY-containing domain of the YpeB protein involved in germination of Bacillus spores. Proteins, 2015. 83(10): p. 1914-21

23. Ustok, F.I., D.Y. Chirgadze, and G. Christie, Structural and functional analysis of SleL, a peptidoglycan lysin involved in germination of Bacillus spores. Proteins, 2015. 83(10): p. 1787-99

24. Manetsberger, J., J.D. Manton, M.J. Erdelyi, H. Lin, D. Rees, G. Christie, and E.J. Rees, Ellipsoid Localization Microscopy Infers the Size and Order of Protein Layers in Bacillus Spore Coats. Biophysical Journal, 2015. 109(10): p. 2058-66

25. Manetsberger, J., E.A. Hall, and G. Christie, Plasmid-encoded genes influence exosporium assembly and morphology in Bacillus megaterium QM B1551 spores. FEMS Microbiology Letters, 2015. 362(18): p. 1 - 7

26. Gupta, S., K.X. Zhou, D.M. Bailey, and G. Christie, Structure-function analysis of the Bacillus megaterium GerUD spore germinant receptor protein. FEMS Microbiology Letters, 2015. 362(24): p. 1 - 6

27. Cruz-Mora, J., A. Perez-Valdespino, S. Gupta, N. Withange, R. Kuwana, H. Takamatsu, G. Christie, and P. Setlow, The GerW Protein Is Not Involved in the Germination of Spores of Bacillus Species. PLoS One, 2015. 10(3): p. 1 - 13

28. Ustok, F.I., L.C. Packman, C.R. Lowe, and G. Christie, Spore germination mediated by Bacillus megaterium QM B1551 SleL and YpeB. Journal of Bacteriology, 2014. 196(5):
p. 1045-54

29. Manetsberger, J., E.A. Hall, and G. Christie, BMQ_0737 encodes a novel protein crucial to the integrity of the outermost layers of Bacillus megaterium QM B1551 spores. FEMS Microbiology Letters, 2014. 358(2): p. 162-9

30. Ramirez-Peralta, A., S. Gupta, X.Y. Butzin, B. Setlow, G. Korza, M.A. Leyva-Vazquez, G. Christie, and P. Setlow, Identification of new proteins that modulate the germination of spores of Bacillus species. Journal of Bacteriology, 2013. 195(13): p. 3009-21

31. Li, Y., X.Y. Butzin, A. Davis, B. Setlow, G. Korza, F.I. Ustok, G. Christie, P. Setlow, and B. Hao, Activity and regulation of various forms of CwlJ, SleB, and YpeB proteins in degrading cortex peptidoglycan of spores of Bacillus species in vitro and during spore germination. Journal of Bacteriology, 2013. 195(11): p. 2530-40

32. Gupta, S., F.I. Ustok, C.L. Johnson, D.M. Bailey, C.R. Lowe, and G. Christie, Investigating the functional hierarchy of Bacillus megaterium PV361 spore germinant receptors. Journal of Bacteriology, 2013. 195(13): p. 3045-53

33. Christie, G., F.I. Ustok, Q. Lu, L.C. Packman, and C.R. Lowe, Mutational analysis of Bacillus megaterium QM B1551 cortex-lytic enzymes. Journal of Bacteriology, 2010. 192(20):
p. 5378-89

34. Christie, G., H. Gotzke, and C.R. Lowe, Identification of a receptor subunit and putative ligand-binding residues involved in the Bacillus megaterium QM B1551 spore germination response to glucose. Journal of Bacteriology, 2010. 192(17): p. 4317-26

35. Setlow, B., L. Peng, C.A. Loshon, Y.Q. Li, G. Christie, and P. Setlow, Characterization of the germination of Bacillus megaterium spores lacking enzymes that degrade the spore cortex. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 2009. 107(1): p. 318-28

36. Christie, G. and C.R. Lowe, Amino acid substitutions in transmembrane domains 9 and 10 of GerVB that affect the germination properties of Bacillus megaterium spores. Journal of Bacteriology, 2008. 190(24): p. 8009-17

37. Christie, G., M. Lazarevska, and C.R. Lowe, Functional consequences of amino acid substitutions to GerVB, a component of the Bacillus megaterium spore germinant receptor. Journal of Bacteriology, 2008. 190(6): p. 2014-22

38. Bhatta, D., G. Christie, J. Blyth, and C.R. Lowe, Development of a holographic sensor for the detection of calcium dipicolinate—A sensitive biomarker for bacterial spores. Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, 2008. 134(2): p. 356-359.

39. Christie, G. and C.R. Lowe, Role of chromosomal and plasmid-borne receptor homologues in the response of Bacillus megaterium QM B1551 spores to germinants. Journal of Bacteriology, 2007. 189(12): p. 4375-83

40. Bhatta, D., G. Christie, B. Madrigal-Gonzalez, J. Blyth, and C.R. Lowe, Holographic sensors for the detection of bacterial spores. Biosensors & Bioelectronics, 2007. 23(4): p. 520-7

41. Leggo, P.J., B. Ledesert, and G. Christie, The role of clinoptilolite in organo-zeolitic-soil systems used for phytoremediation. The Science of the total environment, 2006. 363(1-3):
p. 1-10

42. Madrigal González, B., G. Christie, C.A.B. Davidson, J. Blyth, and C.R. Lowe, Divalent metal ion-sensitive holographic sensors. Analytica Chimica Acta, 2005. 528(2): p. 219-228.